If we believe that adult education grows from learner needs, styles, experiences and motivations, and that the purpose is for learner emancipation and transformation (Wang & Sarbo, 2004), then as educators we should feel inspired to adapt our perspectives and methods to create an inclusive learning environment. Challenging our assumptions and beliefs about the extrovert ideal and asking, “whose voice has not been heard?” can help identify and make space for the introverted learners in the room.
In general, introverted learners need time to process their thoughts; they work better in small groups; they prefer fewer, deeper relationships; they express themselves better in writing; and they need time alone to recharge. Designing our courses to accommodate these needs means deliberately structuring the learning environment and the methods we use to teach.
People participate more when they feel comfortable, and introverted students are no different (Salisbury, 2014). While educators may not have complete control over the learning environment, Cain (2013), Rocca (2010), Salisbury (2014) and Schwegman (2013) offer these suggestions to help create a welcoming space for introverted students:
- set up the room with smaller tables, perhaps using rows in a semi-circular configuration,
- reduce the lighting and external noise,
- consider shorter, more frequent breaks,
- begin the course with a neutral discussion about learning preferences based on introversion-extroversion,
- expand the learning space beyond the room for walking reflections or small group work,
- after asking a question, pause 3 to 5 seconds before inviting responses,
- make eye contact with learners and get to know them by name,
- seek out individual students after class time to check in or set up an office hours meeting,
- build the teacher-learner bond with careful self-disclosure,
- and grade participation more qualitatively and include non-verbal participation.
We know that learners who actively participate in class are more motivated, learn better, improve their communication and critical thinking skills and even function better beyond the classroom (Rocca, 2010). So why not make it as comfortable for the introverted learners as it is for the extroverted learners? Cain (2013), Greenstreet (2013), Monahan (2013), Phillips (2012), Rocca (2010) and Schwegman (2013) make these suggestions for learning activities that may appeal to introverted learners:
- begin the day with journal writing or pair up to produce questions or ideas for the larger group discussion,
- use learning partners: think/pair/share or write/pair/share throughout the course to add depth to discussions,
- use synchronous and asynchronous online forums for processing learning between classes,
- offer on-screen twitter feed or texting during class for questions and comments,
- take time for individual reflective writing and artwork and share on a wall gallery,
- use walking contemplation for individual work,
- spend time on individual reflection and writing before brainstorming to prevent the new groupthink,
- and reach out to students with in-depth feedback on written assignments and comments after class to increase one-to-one communication.
As educators, we play a significant role in setting up learners for success and introverted students have a lot to offer with their quiet persistence and insight. Taking specific steps to make sure their voices are heard will not only benefit them, it will enrich us all.
Cain, S. (2013). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can’t stop talking. New York: Broadway Books.
Greenstreet, K. (2013, August 8). How to facilitate introverts and extroverts in your group or class. (web log comment). Retrieved from http://www.globallearningpartners.com/blog/how-to-facilitate-introverts-and-extroverts-in-your-group-or-class
Monahan, N. (2013, October 28). Keeping introverts in mind in your active learning classroom. (web log comment). Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-and-learning/keeping-introverts-in-mind-in-your-active-learning-classroom/
Phillips, M. (2012, April 16). Student engagement: Introversion and the invisible adolescent. (web log comment). Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/introversion-invisible-adolescent-mark-phillips
Rocca, K. (2010). Student participation in the college classroom: An extended multidisciplinary literature review. Communication Education, 59 (2), 185-213.
Salisbury, M. (2014, May 1). Why social integration matters. (web log comment). Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2014/05/01/colleges-should-pay-more-attention-students-social-integration-essay#sthash.ucUesxlq.dpbs
Schwegman, J. (2013, December 5). Engaging introverts in class discussion – part 1. (web log comment). Retrieved from https://teachingcommons.stanford.edu/teaching-talk/engaging-introverts-class-discussion-part-1
Schwegman, J. (2013, December 5). Engaging introverts in class discussion – part 2. (web log comment). Retrieved from https://teachingcommons.stanford.edu/teaching-talk/engaging-introverts-class-discussion-part-2
Wang, V., & Sarbo, L. (2004). Philosophy, role of adult educators, and learning: How contextually adapted philosophies and the situational role of adult educators affect learners’ transformation and emancipation. Journal of Transformative Education, 2 (3), 204-214.